Land Reforms In India After Independence – Short Note

There was need for Land Reforms in India after Independence. India is primarily an agricultural country and its importance in economy is enormous. More than fifty percent of Indians live in villages, and in a village economy the ownership of land is of crucial importance. Agriculture is the backbone of Indian economy. This sector provides livelihood to allow 70% of our workforce, contributes nearly 32% of Net National product and accounts for a sizeable share of total value of the country’s exports.

During March 1992, all relevant aspects of land reforms and land records management were discussed at a conference of state revenue ministers under the Chairmanship of the then Prime Minister. This discussion was entirely on distribution of surplus land. It was decided that all available surplus land free from encumbrances might be distributed by 30th June, 1992. It was also decided that 75% of the land involved in litigation in revenue courts must he cleared and be distributed accordingly. In addition, certain other recommendations like Bhoodan Land were also made. The lands which were distributed under the ceiling laws were of very poor quality. A sum of Rs 2,500 per hectare had been given to the assignees.

After the abolition of the Zamindari system some major reforms like ceiling on land holdings, tenancy reform and consolidation of holdings have effected a big change in village economy. Our land reforms suffer from many lacunae and loopholes and as a result reforms are far from satisfactory. Due to inter-mediator, distribution of land among the poor and landless farmers is very trouble-some. There is a big lobby of rich and influential farmers and a huge amount of black money is at work against the land reforms and the interests of poor, landless farmers and share croppers. The corruption prevailing in enforcement agencies further worsens the situation.

Therefore, progress of land reforms of India is not satisfactory; it is on mere paper and in reports than in reality. Government should also look into the matter that random sale of agricultural land to the foreign and India’s industrialists must be avoided keeping in view the possible food problem in the near future.